The interrelations between the marine environment and human activities in Montenegro


In Montenegro, as in many coastal communities, the sea provides crucial resources to the country's economy and population. However, human activities and the environment interact within a complex network of interactions: the impacts and pressures we have on natural habitats and species can, in turn, generate ripple effects that recur and affect productivity of those same activities.

The GEF Adriatic project involves mobilising national teams of experts and policy makers, who need to work together to protect and preserve joint marine resources, in order to plan their sustainable use for present and future generations. As part of this endeavour, the project is undertaking assessments and providing the necessary  recommendations for the achievement of Good Environmental Status of the marine and coastal environment in Albania and Montenegro.

A Good Environmental Status can be achieved by focusing on scientifically agreed environmental targets related to mitigating impacts of pressures coming from human activities and minimizing these pressures themselves; all in order to improve the overall health of the marine ecosystems.

The status of marine environment in Montenegro

GEF Adriatic has mapped the interrelationships between the different components of the marine and coastal ecosystem in Montenegro, both natural and human: the results are highlighted in the infographic below. It includes references to the eleven Ecological Objectives (EO) that determine the environmental status of a marine area, as defined by the the Integrated Monitoring and Assessment Programme of the Mediterranean Sea and Coast and Related Assessment Criteria (IMAP):

• EO1 – Biodiversity
• EO2 – Non-indigenous species
• EO3 – Harvest of commercially-exploited fish and shellfish
• EO4 – Food webs
• EO5 – Eutrophication
• EO6 – Sea-floor integrity
• EO7 – Hydrography
• EO8 – Coastal ecosystems and landscapes
• EO9 – Contaminants
• EO10 – Marine Litter
• EO11 – Energy, including underwater noise



Discover the interrelations between human activities and marine environment in Albania